Antimicrobial Resistance

Thursday 9th February 2023

The Antibiotic Reference Laboratory at ESR is responsible for the national surveillance of antimicrobial resistance among human pathogens. Data from various surveillance systems and sources is used to compile national antimicrobial resistance data:

  • Antimicrobial susceptibility data generated from routine diagnostic susceptibility testing in hospital and community laboratories is collected and analysed.
  • The antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates referred to ESR for further investigation, such as epidemiological typing, is monitored. This surveillance includes Salmonella, and invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniaeNeisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae.
  • Periodic point-prevalence surveys of antimicrobial susceptibility among a specific organism using a purpose-collected sample of isolates from throughout the country are conducted.
  • Rare and emerging resistant bacteria are monitored by requesting hospital and community laboratories to refer all such isolates to ESR. Currently this surveillance includes bacteria, especially Enterobacteriaceae, with acquired carbapenemases, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci and vancomycin non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

Data from this surveillance is routinely published on this website.

Antimicrobial Reports

Acquired carbapenemase-producing organisms


ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae

General antimicrobial susceptibility data collected from hospital and community laboratories

Group A streptococci

Haemophilus influenzae from invasive disease

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

MRSA: Weekly Reports

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis from invasive disease



Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae from invasive disease

Streptococcus pneumoniae from non-invasive disease


Vancomycin-resistant enterococci


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