Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - Apr 2012

Friday 20th September 2019


Key notifiable disease trends

·    Campylobacteriosis:  455 Campylobacteriosis cases were notified in April 2012 compared to 411 cases notified in the same month of the previous year. For the 12 month period ending 30 April 2012, the highest rates were in South Canterbury (280.2 per 100 000 population, 158 cases), Wairarapa (248.9 per 100 000 population, 101 cases), and Hawke's Bay (235.6 per 100 000 population, 367 cases) DHBs compared to a national rate of 169.7 per 100 000. Two Campylobacter outbreaks involving 12 cases were reported in April.

·    Chemical poisoning from the environment: Two cases of chemical poisoning from the environment were notified in April 2012. One case was due to carbon monoxide poisoning. The case reported carrying out a lengthy waterblasting job where there was no external ventilation.The case is a male in the 40-49 years age group from Southern DHB. The remaining case has since been made ‘not a case’ after further investigation.

·    Cryptosporidiosis: 46 cases of cryptosporidiosis were notified in April 2012 compared to 19 cases notified during the same month of the previous year. The cases ranged in age from 8 months to 76 years, with the highest number of cases in the 1-4 years (15 cases) and in the 30-39 years (8 cases) age groups.  The highest numbers of cases were from Capital and Coast (16 cases), and Canterbury and Waikato (6 cases each) DHBs. Among the cases where risk factor information was recorded, 60.0% (9/15) had recreational water contact, 47.4% (9/19) had attended school, pre-school or childcare, 45.5% (5/11) had consumed food from a food premises, and 42.9% (6/14) had contact with faecal matter during the incubation period. Two Cryptosporidium outbreaks involving six cases were reported in April.

·    Dengue fever: Seven cases of dengue fever were notified in April 2012. All of the cases had travelled overseas during the incubation period, and the countries visited were Fiji (4), Indonesia, Thailand, and Papua New Guinea (1 case each). Two of the cases were hospitalised. Of those with available information, one case had an onset date within the month of March while one case had an onset date in early April.

·    Hepatitis C: Seven cases of hepatitis C were notified in April 2012 (4 confirmed, 3 under investigation), compared to two cases notified in the same month of the previous year.  Ethnicity was reported as European (6 cases), and is unknown for the remaining case. The most commonly reported risk factors were a history of injecting drug use (5), body piercing or tattooing procedures in the last twelve months (2), and household contact with a confirmed case or carrier (2).

·    Legionellosis: 19 cases of legionellosis were notified in April 2012 (12 confirmed and 7 under investigation), compared to eight cases notified in the same month of the previous year. The following section relates to the 12 confirmed cases only. The cases were from Waitemata and Canterbury (3 cases each), Auckland and Counties Manukau (2 cases each), and Nelson Marlborough and Southern (1 case each) DHBs. Cases were distributed by age group as follows: 60-69 years (5 cases), 50-59 years and 70 years and older (3 cases each), and 40-49 years (1 case). Ten cases were hospitalised.  Among the cases where risk information was recorded, four reported exposure to environmental sources of infection (three cases reported exposure to compost/potting mix, and one to a possible contaminated hot water system and shower). The Legionella species was identified in 12 cases: Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (7 cases), L. longbeachae serogroup 1 or 2 (2 cases), and L. pneumophila serogroup 1 or 12, L. longbeachae serogroup 1 and L. dumoffii (1 case each).

·    Leptospirosis: 18 cases of leptospirosis were notified in April 2012 (10 confirmed, 2 probable and 6 under investigation), compared to seven cases notified in the same month of the previous year. The following section relates to the 10 confirmed and 2 probable cases only. These cases were from Waikato (3 cases), Waitemata (2 cases), and Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke’s Bay, Whanganui, MidCentral, Hutt Valley and West Coast (1 case each) DHBs. High risk occupations were recorded for six cases: farmers or farm workers (4) and  meat workers (2). Of the remaining six cases, one reported animal exposure (pig hunting), and risk factor information was unknown for five cases. Leptospira species and serovars were recorded for five cases: Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (3), L. interrogans sv Copenhageni (1), and L. borgpetersenii sv Tarassovi (1).

·    Pertussis: 328 cases of pertussis were notified in April 2012, compared with 379 cases notified the previous month and 35 cases in the same month of the previous year. There were 48 (14.6%) cases laboratory-confirmed by isolation of Bordetella pertussis from the nasopharynx. A further 99 (30.2%) cases were laboratory-confirmed by PCR. Monthly cases continue to decrease after a peak in December last year (Figure 1). The highest number of cases were from Canterbury DHB (86), followed by Nelson Marlborough (55), and Capital and Coast (54) DHBs. Cases occurred in all age groups, with 27.7% (91/328 cases) under 5 years old, including 35 cases aged less than 1 year. The highest numbers occurred in the 1-4 years (56), 40-49 years (39), 5-9 years (38), and the less than one year (35) age groups.  The vaccination status was recorded for 184 (56.1%) cases. Of these, 51 were reported as not vaccinated (including four cases aged less than 6 weeks and therefore not eligible for vaccination), three received one dose of vaccine, 11 received three or more doses, and 119 were reported as being vaccinated but no dose information was available. Of the cases where the relevant information was recorded, 42.2% (89/211) attended school, pre-school or childcare, and 37.4% (43/115) had contact with a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case.

·    Shigellosis: 12 cases of shigellosis were notified in April 2012 compared with 18 cases notified in the previous month and three cases in the same month of the previous year (Figure 2). Cases were from the following DHBs: Counties Manukau (6 cases), Auckland (3 cases), Waitemata (2 cases), and Waikato (1 case). The serotype involved was identified for all cases: Shigella sonnei biotype a (4), S. flexneri (3), S. flexneri 2a (2), S. flexneri 3a, S. flexneri 6 biotype Boyd 88, and S. sonnei biotype a (1 case each). Overseas travel during the incubation period was recorded for two cases. Both cases visited Samoa. The travel history of the remaining 10 cases is unknown.

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Report:

Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - Apr 2012

Tables:

Monthly National Totals - Apr 2012

Monthly DHB Totals - Apr 2012

Monthly Rolling Totals - Apr 2012

 

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Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - Apr 2012

Tables:

Monthly National Totals - Apr 2012

Monthly DHB Totals - Apr 2012

Monthly Rolling Totals - Apr 2012

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