Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - Apr 2016

Friday 20th September 2019


Key notifiable disease trends

Chikungunya fever: Six confirmed cases of chikungunya fever were notified in April 2016 compared to three confirmed and one probable case notified during the same month of the previous year. Nine cases have been notified in the year to date compared to 39 at the same time in the previous year. All cases reported overseas travel to Fiji during the incubation period for the disease.

Cryptosporidiosis: 65 confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis were notified in April 2016 compared to 34 cases notified during the same month of the previous year. The 12-month rate in April (17.1 cases per 100,000) was higher than at the same time in the previous year (13.2 per 100,000). The highest numbers of cases were reported from Auckland, Counties Manukau, Waitemata (10 cases each), Northland and Canterbury (8 cases each) DHBs. The cases ranged in age from 9 months to 78 years, with the highest numbers of cases in the 30–39 years (15 cases), 1–4 years (12 cases) and 20–29 years (11 cases) age groups. Among the cases for which risk factor information was recorded, 31.3% (5/15) had consumed food from a food premises, 30.8% (8/26) had consumed untreated water, 28.0% (7/25) had recreational contact with water, and 23.3% (7/30) had contact with other symptomatic people during the incubation period.

Giardiasis: 144 cases of giardiasis (139 confirmed and 5 under investigation) were notified in April 2016 compared to 122 cases notified during the same month of the previous year (Figure 1). Six hundred and forty cases have been notified in the year to date compared to 528 at the same time in the previous year. The highest numbers of cases were reported from Auckland (26 cases) and Counties Manukau (18 cases) DHBs. Among the cases for which risk factor information was recorded, 51.6% (32/62) had contact with other symptomatic people, 50.9% (29/57) had contact with faecal matter or vomit, 48.3% (28/58) had recreational contact with water, and 33.9% (19/56) had consumed untreated water during the incubation period. Two finalised Giardia outbreaks (6 cases total) and one interim outbreak (case numbers yet to be determined) were created in April.

Hepatitis NOS: One confirmed case of hepatitis NOS (hepatitis E) was notified in April 2016. The case was a male in the 60–69 years age group from Counties Manukau DHB. No risk factor information was recorded as the case was not able to be contacted.

Legionellosis: 27 cases of legionellosis (17 confirmed, 6 probable and 4 under investigation) were notified in April 2016 compared to 23 cases notified during the previous month, and 19 during the same month of the previous year. After further investigation, three cases have since been found not to meet the case criteria. Cases were reported from Auckland (4 cases), Waitemata, Canterbury (3 cases each), Counties Manukau, Bay of Plenty, Nelson Marlborough, Southern (2 cases each), Waikato, MidCentral, Hutt Valley, Capital & Coast, West Coast and South Canterbury (1 case each) DHBs. The Legionella species was identified for 16 cases as: L. longbeachae (7 cases), L. pneumophila (4 cases), L. sainthelensi (2 cases), L. bozemanae, L. micdadei and L. oakridgensis (1 case each). The increase in legionellosis notifications compared to the same time in the previous year may be due to the LegiNZ study, which began in May 2015 and involves 20 hospitals in 17 DHBs.

Listeriosis: Five cases of listeriosis (4 confirmed non-perinatal and 1 perinatal under investigation) were notified in April 2016. The non-perinatal cases were in the 60–69 years and 70 years and over age groups (2 cases each). Non-perinatal cases were reported from Waitemata (2 cases), Hawke’s Bay and Canterbury (1 case each) DHBs. The mother in the perinatal case was in the 20–29 years age group, of Pacific peoples ethnicity and from Waikato DHB. Gestation information was recorded, and the infant was delivered three days after the due date. The infant died the day before delivery and no post mortem was done. The serotype was identified as Listeria monocytogenes serotype O1/2 (3 cases) and Listeria monocytogenes serotype O4 (2 cases).

Measles: 15 cases of measles (13 confirmed and 2 under investigation) were notified in April 2016 compared to one case notified during the same month of the previous year. After further investigation, one case has since been found not to meet the case criteria. Cases were reported from Waikato (13 cases) and Counties Manukau (1 case) DHBs. One interim measles virus outbreak (case numbers yet to be determined) was created in April.

Pertussis: 79 cases of pertussis (46 confirmed, 29 probable, 1 suspect and 3 under investigation) were notified in April 2016 compared to 70 cases in the same month of the previous year (Figure 2). After further investigation, one case has since been found not to meet the case criteria. The 12-month rate in April (27.4 cases per 100,000) was higher than at the same time in the previous year (21.2 per 100,000). However, the number of notifications has continued to decrease since the 125 notifications in January 2016. Four cases were hospitalised and no deaths were reported. Fifty-nine percent (46/78) of cases were laboratory-confirmed (35 PCR, 9 by culture and 2 by PCR and culture). The highest numbers of cases were reported from Canterbury (25 cases), Capital & Coast (15 cases), Waitemata (9 cases) and Waikato (8 cases) DHBs. The cases ranged in age from 1 month to 84 years, with 17.9% (14/78) under 5 years of age (including 6 cases aged less than 1 year). The highest numbers of cases were in the 5–9 years (12 cases), 20–29 years and 30–39 years (9 cases each) age groups.

Rickettsial disease: Two cases of rickettsial disease were notified in April 2016. After further investigation, one case has since been found not to meet the case criteria. The other case is still under investigation and is a female in the 50–59 years age group from Waitemata DHB.

Ross River virus infection: One confirmed case of Ross River virus infection was notified in April 2016. The case was a male in the 40–49 years age group from Canterbury DHB. The case had travelled to Australia during the incubation period for the disease.

Salmonellosis: 107 cases of salmonellosis (106 confirmed and 1 under investigation) were notified in April 2016 compared to 96 cases notified during the same month of the previous year. The highest numbers of cases were reported from Tairawhiti (20 cases), Canterbury (15 cases) and Waikato (14 cases) DHBs. The cases ranged in age from 4 months to 86 years, with the highest numbers of cases in the 1–4 years and 20– 29 years age groups (18 cases each). Seventeen cases were hospitalised. The Salmonella serotypes were identified in 98.1% (105/107) of cases, the most common were S. Stanley (17 cases), S. Enteritidis phage type 11 (7 cases) and S. Typhimurium phage type 101 (6 cases). Uncommon Salmonella serotypes confirmed this month included S. Kottbus and S. Typhimurium phage type 179 (1 case each). Among the cases for which risk factor information was recorded, 54.0% (27/50) had consumed food from a food premises, 21.7% (13/60) had contact with farm animals, 20.8% (11/53) had consumed untreated water, and 18.3% (13/71) had travelled overseas during the incubation period for the disease. Two interim Salmonella outbreaks were created in April by Tairawhiti DHB (case numbers yet to be determined), S. Stanley was the causative agent in one of the outbreaks and S. Infantis in the other.

Taeniasis: One confirmed case of taeniasis was notified in April 2016. The case was a male in the 30–39 years age group from Bay of Plenty DHB. The case reported overseas travel to the Philippines during the incubation period for the disease.

Typhoid fever: Five cases of typhoid fever were notified in April 2016 compared to one case notified during the same month of the previous year. Twenty-two cases have been notified in the year to date compared to 13 at the same time in the previous year. Cases were reported from Auckland (2 cases), Counties Manukau, Waitemata and Bay of Plenty (1 case each) DHBs. The cases were in the 1–4 years, 15–19 years, 20–29 years, 40–49 years and 50–59 years age groups (1 case each). All cases had hospitalisation information recorded, 80.0% (4/5) were hospitalised. Three cases reported travelling to India during the incubation period for the disease.

VTEC/STEC infection: 59 cases of VTEC/STEC infection (54 confirmed and 5 under investigation) were notified in April compared to 35 cases confirmed during the same month of the previous year. The 12-month rate in April (9.7 cases per 100,000) was notably higher than at the same time in the previous year (5.1 per 100,000). The highest numbers of cases were reported from Waitemata (13 cases), Northland (9 cases) and Counties Manukau (8 cases) DHBs. The highest numbers of cases occurred in the 1–4 years age group (22 cases). Fourteen cases were hospitalised. Fifty-two cases have been confirmed by the Enteric Reference Laboratory as being infected with VTEC/STEC, and of these the serotype was identified as Escherichia coli O157:H7 (30 cases) and non-O157 (22 cases). Of the cases for which risk factor information was recorded, 72.2% (26/36) had contact with animals, 38.5% (9/24) had contact with children in nappies, 26.3% (10/38) had contact with a person with similar symptoms, and 22.6% (7/31) had recreational contact with water during the incubation period for the disease. The increase in notifications for DHBs in the Auckland region may be due to a change in laboratory methods in July 2015; all faecal specimens are now screened for VTEC/STEC using PCR. Three finalised VTEC/STEC outbreaks (8 cases total) and one interim outbreak (case numbers yet to be determined) were created in April.

Zika virus infection: Four confirmed cases of zika virus infection were notified in April 2016. Cases were reported in the 30–39 years (2 cases), 40–49 years and 70 years and over (1 case each) age groups. All cases were confirmed by PCR. All cases travelled during the incubation period for the disease, and countries visited were Fiji (3 cases) and Venezuela (1 case).

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Report:

Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - April 2016

Tables:

Monthly National Totals - April 2016

Monthly DHB Totals - April 2016

Monthly Rolling Totals - April 2016

 

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Monthly Notifiable Disease Surveillance Report - April 2016

Tables:

Monthly National Totals - April 2016

Monthly DHB Totals - April 2016

Monthly Rolling Totals - April 2016

Ph: +64 4 914 0700 Fax: +64 4 914 0770 Email: survqueries@esr.cri.nz